Despite the increasing integration of women into the labour market, the economic inequality between men and women continues to be a central dimension of social inequality. Women tend to earn less than men, they are more likely to be employed part-time and less likely to be in leading positions. Much of this inequality is due to motherhood and women’s role as carers. While the gender gap and the motherhood penalty are visible in virtually all European labour markets, the size of these inequalities and penalties varies notably. In this seminar we will discuss theoretical approaches and empirical evidence in labour market, organizational, family and welfare state sociology to gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of these persistent inequalities at the micro-, meso-, and macro-level. Much of the empirical literature we will discuss in class is based on quantitative analyses.